This work is devoted to the birth of the European bastioned system and was published following the 2002 symposium of the history of architecture inTourswhich brought together European specialists in bastioned fortification.
From the 13th century onwards, military architecture was forced to adapt to the constant progress in the development of artillery, especially after the invention of the metal cannonball. Therefore, in this context, bastioned fortification emerged from 1500 and established throughoutEurope.
However, two different theories exist about the spread of fortification throughoutEurope, both of which are discussed in this book. Some think that bastioned fortification started inItalyand spread to other countries through the recruitment of Italian engineers, whereas others are of the opinion that the bastioned system was the result of architectural experimentation carried out in different European sites during the Renaissance.